Explanation for important Questions

A front controller is defined as “a controller which handles all requests for a Web Application.” DispatcherServlet (actually a servlet) is the front controller in Spring MVC that intercepts every request and then dispatches/forwards requests to an appropriate controller.

When a web request is sent to a Spring MVC application, dispatcher servlet first receives the request. Then it organizes the different components configured in Spring’s web application context (e.g. actual request handler controller and view resolvers) or annotations present in the controller itself, all needed to handle the request.

For adding JSON support to your spring application, you will need to add Jackson dependency in first step.

Now you are ready to return JSON response from your MVC controller. All you have to do is return JAXB annotated object from method and use @ResponseBody annotation on this return type.

Alternatively, you can use @RestController annotation in place of @Controller annotation. This will remove the need to using @ResponseBody.

@RestController = @Controller + @ResponseBody

So you can write the above controller as below.

YES. You can have multiple spring context files. There are two ways to make spring read and configure them.

Specify all files in web.xml file using contextConfigLocation init parameter.

OR, you can import them into existing configuration file you have already configured.


  1. First big difference between both tags is that <context:annotation-config> is used to activate applied annotations in already registered beans in application context. Note that it simply does not matter whether bean was registered by which mechanism e.g. using <context:component-scan> or it was defined in application-context.xml file itself.

  2. Second difference is driven from first difference itself. It registers the beans defined in config file into context + it also scans the annotations inside beans and activate them. So <context:component-scan> does what <context:annotation-config> does, but additionally it scan the packages and register the beans in application context.


  1. The @Component annotation marks a java class as a bean so the component-scanning mechanism of spring can pick it up and pull it into the application context.

  2. To use this annotation, apply it over class as below:

  3. The @Repository annotation is a specialization of the @Component annotation with similar use and functionality. In addition to importing the DAOs into the DI container, it also makes the unchecked exceptions (thrown from DAO methods) eligible for translation into Spring DataAccessException.

  4. The @Service annotation is also a specialization of the component annotation. It doesn’t currently provide any additional behavior over the @Component annotation, but it’s a good idea to use @Service over @Component in service-layer classes because it specifies intent better.

  5. @Controller annotation marks a class as a Spring Web MVC controller. It too is a @Componentspecialization, so beans marked with it are automatically imported into the DI container. When you add the @Controller annotation to a class, you can use another annotation i.e. @RequestMapping; to map URLs to instance methods of a class.

Spring comes with MultipartResolver to handle file upload in web application. There are two concrete implementations included in Spring:

  1. CommonsMultipartResolver for Jakarta Commons FileUpload

  2. StandardServletMultipartResolver for Servlet 3.0 Part API

To define an implementation, create a bean with the id “multipartResolver” in a DispatcherServlet’s application context. Such a resolver gets applied to all requests handled by that DispatcherServlet.

If a DispatcherServlet detects a multipart request, it will resolve it via the configured MultipartResolver and pass on a wrapped HttpServletRequest. Controllers can then cast their given request to the MultipartHttpServletRequest interface, which permits access to any MultipartFiles.

Simply implement ServletContextAware and ServletConfigAware interfaces and override below methods.

For using servlet container configured JNDI DataSource, we need to configure it in the spring bean configuration file and then inject it to spring beans as dependencies. Then we can use it with JdbcTemplate to perform database operations.