Manual Testing Interview Questions Part II

What are the Structure-based (white-box) testing techniques?

Structure-based testing techniques (which are also dynamic rather than static) use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases. They are commonly called 'white-box' or 'glass-box' techniques (implying you can see into the system) since they require knowledge of how the software is implemented, that is, how it works. For example, a structural technique may be concerned with exercising loops in the software. Different test cases may be derived to exercise the loop once, twice, and many times. This may be done regardless of the functionality of the software.

When "Regression Testing" should be performed?

After the software has changed or when the environment has changed Regression testing should be performed.

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What is negative and positive testing?

A negative test is when you put in an invalid input and receives errors. While a positive testing, is when you put in a valid input and expect some action to be completed in accordance with the specification.

What is the purpose of a test completion criterion?

The purpose of test completion criterion is to determine when to stop testing.

What can static analysis NOT find?

For example memory leaks.

What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing?

Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected side effects.

What are the Experience-based testing techniques?

In experience-based techniques, people's knowledge, skills and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases. The experience of both technical and business people is important, as they bring different perspectives to the test analysis and design process. Due to previous experience with similar systems, they may have insights into what could go wrong, which is very useful for testing.

Could reviews or inspections be considered part of testing?

Yes, because both help detect faults and improve quality.

What is the MAIN benefit of designing tests early in the life cycle?

It helps prevent defects from being introduced into the code.

How much testing is enough?

The answer depends on the risk for your industry, contract and special requirements.

When should testing be stopped?

It depends on the risks for the system being tested. There are some criteria bases on which you can stop testing.

  1. Deadlines (Testing, Release)

  2. Test budget has been depleted

  3. Bug rate fall below certain level

  4. Test cases completed with certain percentage passed

  5. Alpha or beta periods for testing ends

  6. Coverage of code, functionality or requirements are met to a specified point

Which of the following is the main purpose of the integration strategy for integration testing in the small?

The main purpose of the integration strategy is to specify which modules to combine when and how many at once.

What are semi-random test cases?

Semi-random test cases are nothing but when we perform random test cases and do equivalence partitioning to those test cases, it removes redundant test cases, thus giving us semi-random test cases.

What is black box testing? What are the different black box testing techniques?

Black box testing is the software testing method which is used to test the software without knowing the internal structure of code or program. This testing is usually done to check the functionality of an application. The different black box testing techniques are:

  1. Equivalence Partitioning

  2. Boundary value analysis

  3. Cause effect graphing

Why we use decision tables?

The techniques of equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis are often applied to specific situations or inputs. However, if different combinations of inputs result in different actions being taken, this can be more difficult to show using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, which tend to be more focused on the user interface. The other two specification-based techniques, decision tables and state transition testing are more focused on business logic or business rules. A decision table is a good way to deal with combinations of things (e.g. inputs). This technique is sometimes also referred to as a 'cause-effect' table. The reason for this is that there is an associated logic diagramming technique called 'cause-effect graphing' which was sometimes used to help derive the decision table

Why does the boundary value analysis provide good test cases?

Because errors are frequently made during programming of the different cases near the 'edges' of the range of values.

What makes an inspection different from other review types?

It is led by a trained leader, uses formal entry and exit criteria and checklists.

Why can be tester dependent on configuration management?

Because configuration management assures that we know the exact version of the testware and the test object.